Channa in general
Channa, commonly known as Snakeheads, are primitive predatory fish and members of the family Channidae. They are a group of perciform (perch-like) fishes whose affinities are unknown, although recent studies on the molecular phylogeny of bony fishes consider snakeheads as most closely related to the labyrinth fishes (anabantoids) and the synbranchiform eels, which include the spiny eels.
The genus Channa contains 31 species that are native thoughout Asia from are native from
southeastern Iran and eastern Afghanistan eastward through Pakistan, India, southern
Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Malaysia, Sumatra, Indonesia,
Vietnam, Korea, and China northward into Siberia.
3 species of the closely related genera Parachanna are native to parts of Africa.
The different species of Channa vary in size considerably. The term dwarf snakeheads is coined by aquarists to describe a group of Channa species growing only 25 centimeters: Channa bleheri, Channa cachua, Channa orientalis and Channa andrao. These species are most suitable for keeping in an aquarium because of their size and their relative docile temperament.
Most of the species grow to a maximum length of 30-90 centimeters. Besides size, this intermediate category contains the most diversity in behaviour since some of the species are closer related to the dwarf species, and some relate more to the category of monsterfish.
5 species (A. argus. C. barca, C. marulius, C. micropeltes and C. striata) can even grow up to 100 cm or even larger and can be considered monsterfish that are barely suitable for aquaria.
Fossiles dated from 50 million years ago indicate an origin in the southern Himalayas (India and East Pakistan). From 15 million years ago end on, the animals have spread by the expanding intertropical climate zone to parts of Europe, Africa and larger parts of Asia.
Channa have an elongated body and are distinguished by their long dorsal fins large mouths full of teeth. They earn their common name Snakehead because their flattened shape and the scales on their heads that are reminiscent of the large epidermal scales on snakes.
Channa have gills to breath water like most other fish. However subadults and adults can also breath air to supplement their demand for oxygen. Snakeheads are in fact obligatory air breathers and must have air from the surface otherwise they will drown. Unlike many other airbreathing fishes, channa have a series of cavities in the rear section of their head. These suprabranchial chambers are filled with folded tissues that have a high surface area, and allow oxygen change to occur directly between air and their blood. Unlike mammals they lack a diaphragm, and use water to exchange old air with fresh air each time they take a breath. Thus, their ability to breathe air when out of the water is limited. They appear to breathe air more frequently when swimming actively.
The genera Parachanna (native to parts of Africa) is described apart from the genera Channa because of a more primitive implementation of the airbreathing section.
Snakeheads are known to migrate over short distances over land to find other waterbassins, using the ability to breath air. When moving over land they curve their body in an S shape first, before launching themselves forward by a powerful stretch. In high humidity conditions Channa are able to survive from 2 up to 4 days out of the water. When placed in direct sunlight, however, they dessicate and perish in minutes to several hours. In contrary to what is believed, Snakeheads are not known to leave the water for any reason other than making their way back to water after flooding. The only true Snakeheads to actively leave the water are some of the smaller species, C. gachau and C. orientalis, C. asiatica, and C. amphibeus, and still there must be an obvious reason for change.
Snakeheads are able to live in varying waterconditions. Some species are bound to a subtropical climatezone. For good health these species require cooler watertemperatures., at least for a seasonal period. Most snakeheads can tolerate a very large range of waterparameters (temperature, PH, GH, level oxygen). However, they are very vulnerable in case of sudden changes.
Channa are predatory fish that prey in the juvenile stadium on plankton, insects and snails. While they grow the larger species switch towards a menu that consists mainly on fish, frogs, crabs, shrimps, small aquatic mammals and birds.
Before adulthood most Channa species hunt in groups. When becoming sexually mature they start a solitary life and develop a high level of aggression against their own species and other fish. When a couple has formed most species do not tolerate other fish.
Channa are not active swimmers and, when not feeding, tend to move only when surfacing for air. They spend a lot of time hovering in midwater or resting on the bottom within cover as ambush predators. Some larges snakeheads however live a more pelagic life and are far more active swimmers. All snakeheads are capable of powerful bursts of acceleration. They curve their body in a S-shape and launch themselves forward by stretching.
Parental care is behavioural characteristic of Snakeheads. Both parents protect and guard their young vigorously. The majority of the species guard their eggs at the surface of the water. Some of the smaller species are mouthbrooder. Only some species are holebrooders.
Amongst specialist aquarists Channa is a popular -oddball- aquariumfish. Snakeheads are elegant, alert, clever, restful and powerful fish, with lots of personality. Their communication with conspecifics their hunting skills and breeding behaviour are fascinating. Some aquarist even specialize themselves by dedicating their large fishtank to the largest specimens. Sometimes they maintain a pet-like connection with their monsterfish. Some rare and attractively marked species (like C. Barca) belong to the most expensive aquariumfish in the trade.
Some Snakeheads display considerable changes in colour pattern while growing. In the early days of classification of fishspecies this formed a lot confusion since in that days colour was still considered a criterium for classication.
Besides some dwarf species, many juveniles are more attractively marked than adults. With age species often develop a browner, more drab look. Because of this phenomen some aquarists lose interest in the fish while it grows. Those considering their first purchase should be well aware of what they are getting into.
Because of its predatory nature none of the Snakeheads are a suitable choice for a community tank. Most of the species will quickly empty a general communitytank with smaller fish. Thus a dedicated aquarium is required for keeping snakeheads.
Aquarists have very diverse experiences when it comes to combining Channa species with other robust fish species. In general, most species are probably best kept alone. The level of tolerance towards other fish varies per species, but also seem to vary per specimen or specific situation. Combining Channa with other aggressive and territorial fish species, like members of the Cichlidae family is a strategy that does not work out well. A Channa that is intimidated will hide, try to escape the tank and refuse to eat.
Because of their size and relatively mild temperament most of the dwarf species can be combined with fish from 2/3 of their own length, as long their tank mates are not overly aggressive. Keep in mind that most of the members of the dwarf species are native to areas with varying water conditions, depending on the season. A seasonal drop of water temperature is required too maintain good health.
Medium sizes species
Many medium sized channa (30-60 cm) should be combined with relatively fast swimming and robust fish, like larger cyprinids. The general opinion is that changes are best if the Snakeheads are not fully grown and the other fish are already settled. Newly introduced fish are often killed, even when they do not fit their mouth. Mostly however, the co-existence is temporarely: When a couple is formed often all other fish are hunted and killed.
Large species (60 – 130 cm)
These species require a lot of space. Most private aquarium setup’s are just large enough to host only 1 or 2 adults. Young species often can tolerate conspecifics ans other robust fish very well. Newly introduced fish are often ripped apart instantly. Adultfish (especially formed couples) develop the maximum level of aggression. Most of the time they are last fish standing in an aquarium set-up.
Large species (60 – 130 cm)
These species require a lot of space. Most private aquarium setup’s are just large enough to host only 1 or 2 adults. Often, newly introduced fish are ripped apart instantly. Some species are important for human consumption, but are considered highly invasive and destructive to other ecosystems.
Channa asiatica grows maximum 35 cm and is a relative small Snakehead. Channa asiatica is native to middle- and SouthChina (the Yangtze functions as northern border) and the Sông Cái rivier in Northern Vietnam. Further this species is found on the island Hainan and Hongkong. Channa asiatica is introduced in Taiwan and some Japanese islands.
Channa asiatica is a mouthbreeder. Sexing is difficult since the difference between male and female is difficult tot distinguish. Females grow somewhat slower then males.
Channa asiatica is best kept solitary or as a couple. To form a couple a group of young speciments should be kept until a couple has formed. When a couple has formed all other fish must be removed since they probably will be killed by the couple. For keeping a group a large aquarium, set up with a lot of hiding places, and some luck is required. This species is reported extremely intolerant, even at younger age and can cause serious injuries to each other. If a couple is formed the confrontations end. Most of the time the couple will have a close relationship. However, there are reports of sudden aggression after mating or a change in environment, often ending in death of one of the partners. It is wise to have an separation screen by hand or a spare aquarium.
Reports concerning combining Channa asiatica with other fishspecies vary. Sometimes it goes without problems. However, often the outcome is that Channa asiatica is the last fish standing. Even larger fish have a chance to end up peeld or in pieces.
Channa asiatica is, compared to other Snakeheads, an active species
A dim-lighted aquarium with dense planted area, open swimming places and with a lot of place to shelter. Use a tighly fitting hood since channa species are true escape artists. A gap between the waters surface and the hood is needed since they need to breath from the surface
Keep the temperature in summer at a maximum of 22-24 degrees C. In winter season the subtropical variations do require a drop in temperature to 15-20 degrees C. In this period less food is required and a lower waterlevel will do. A cool period is necessary for good health: maintaining a high temperature often leads to general weakness and (lethal) bacterial infections.
Carnivorous. All kind of living fishfood is accepted like artemia, bloodworm, mosquito larvae, shrimps, insects, snails earthworm and pieces of fish. Frozen and dried pallets are accepted.
A well feeded couple from 18 cm will usually mate at least 1 time a year. In the aquarium often once in the 6-8 days. Mating occurs at night mostly and is reported at a temperature around 18 degrees C. Femals have a more pale basecolor with a pink glow and more pronounced darkbrown stripes and silver markings. Contrary, male become darker.
The eggs will float to the surface. Both parents will show parental care. Depending on watertemperature the eggs will hatch in 24-32 hours. The young measure 6-7 mm and hunt straight away in the same way as the parents do. They can be fed artemia and cyclops. If you want to grow as much young as possible then it is important to filter the fish by growth on a weekly basis. Otherwise number will be decimated because of cannibalism.
Patrick de Pijper
Patrick de Pijper