Channa maculata – blotched snakehead

Channa maculata or blotched snakehead is a forceful Snakehead species with a pelagic lifestyle. They grow up to 20-30 cm and  appear to be a miniature of the closely related  ‘rivermonster’  Channa argus

Description

Channa in general

Channa, commonly known as Snakeheads, are primitive predatory fish and members of the family Channidae. They are a group of perciform (perch-like) fishes whose affinities are unknown, although recent studies on the molecular phylogeny of bony fishes consider snakeheads as most closely related to the labyrinth fishes (anabantoids) and the synbranchiform eels, which include the spiny eels.

The genus Channa contains 31 species that are native thoughout Asia from are native from
southeastern Iran and eastern Afghanistan eastward through Pakistan, India, southern
Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Malaysia, Sumatra, Indonesia,
Vietnam, Korea, and China northward into Siberia.
3 species of the closely related genera Parachanna are native to parts of Africa.

verspreiding channidae
verspreiding channidae

The different species of Channa vary in size considerably. The term dwarf snakeheads is coined by aquarists to describe a group of Channa species growing only 25 centimeters: Channa bleheri, Channa cachua, Channa orientalis and Channa andrao. These species are most suitable for keeping in an aquarium because of their size and their relative docile temperament.

Most of the  species grow to a maximum length of 30-90 centimeters. Besides size, this intermediate category contains the most diversity in behaviour since some of the species are closer related to the dwarf species, and some relate more to the category of monsterfish.

5 species (A. argus. C. barca, C. marulius, C. micropeltes and C. striata) can even grow up to 100 cm or even larger  and can be considered monsterfish that are barely suitable for aquaria.

Origin

Fossiles dated from 50 million years ago indicate an origin in the southern Himalayas (India and East Pakistan). From 15 million years ago end on, the animals have spread by the expanding intertropical climate zone to parts of Europe, Africa and larger parts of Asia.

Physical features

Channa have an elongated body and are distinguished by their long dorsal fins large mouths full of teeth. They earn their common name Snakehead because their flattened shape and the scales on their heads that are reminiscent of the large epidermal scales on snakes.

Channa have gills to breath water like most other fish. However subadults and adults can also breath air to supplement their demand for oxygen. Snakeheads are in fact obligatory air breathers and must have air from the surface otherwise they will drown. Unlike many other airbreathing fishes, channa have a series of cavities in the rear section of their head. These suprabranchial chambers are filled with folded tissues that have a high surface area, and allow oxygen change to occur directly between air and their blood. Unlike mammals they lack a diaphragm, and use water to exchange old air with fresh air each time they take a breath. Thus, their ability to breathe air when out of the water is limited. They appear to breathe air more frequently when swimming actively.
The genera Parachanna (native to parts of Africa) is described apart from the genera Channa because of a more primitive implementation of the airbreathing section.

Snakeheads are known to migrate over short distances over land to find other waterbassins, using the ability to breath air. When moving over land they curve their body in an S shape first, before launching themselves forward by a powerful stretch. In high humidity conditions Channa are able to survive from 2 up to 4 days out of the water. When placed in direct sunlight, however, they  dessicate and perish in minutes to several hours. In contrary to what is believed, Snakeheads are not known to leave the water for any reason other than making their way back to water after flooding. The only true Snakeheads to actively leave the water are some of the smaller species, C. gachau and C. orientalis, C. asiatica, and C. amphibeus, and still there must be an obvious reason for change.

Snakeheads are able to live in varying waterconditions. Some species are bound to a subtropical climatezone. For good health these species require cooler watertemperatures., at least for a seasonal period.  Most snakeheads can tolerate a very large range of waterparameters (temperature, PH, GH, level oxygen). However, they are very vulnerable in case of sudden changes.

Behaviour

Channa are predatory fish that prey in the juvenile stadium on plankton, insects and snails. While they grow the larger species switch  towards a menu that consists mainly on fish, frogs, crabs, shrimps, small aquatic mammals and birds.

Before adulthood most Channa species hunt in groups. When becoming sexually mature they start a solitary life and develop a high level of aggression against their own species and other fish. When a couple has formed most species do not tolerate other fish.

Channa are not active swimmers and, when not feeding, tend to move only when surfacing for air. They spend a lot of time hovering in midwater or resting on the bottom within cover as ambush predators. Some larges snakeheads however live a more pelagic life and are far more active swimmers. All snakeheads are capable of  powerful bursts of acceleration. They curve their body in a S-shape and launch themselves forward by stretching.

Parental care is behavioural characteristic of Snakeheads. Both parents protect and guard their young vigorously. The majority of the species guard their eggs at the surface of the water. Some of the smaller species are mouthbrooder. Only some species are holebrooders.

Amongst specialist aquarists Channa is a popular -oddball- aquariumfish.  Snakeheads are elegant, alert, clever, restful and powerful fish, with lots of personality. Their communication with conspecifics their hunting skills and breeding behaviour are fascinating. Some aquarist even specialize themselves by dedicating their large fishtank to the largest specimens. Sometimes they maintain a pet-like connection with their monsterfish. Some rare and attractively marked species (like C. Barca) belong to the most expensive aquariumfish in the trade.

Some Snakeheads display considerable changes in colour pattern while growing. In the early days of classification of fishspecies this formed a lot confusion since in that days colour was still considered a criterium for classication.
Besides some dwarf species, many juveniles are more attractively marked than adults. With age species often develop a browner, more drab look. Because of this phenomen some aquarists lose interest in the fish while it grows. Those considering their first purchase should be well aware of what they are getting into.

Because of its predatory nature none of the Snakeheads are a suitable choice for a community tank. Most of the species will quickly empty a general communitytank with smaller fish. Thus a dedicated aquarium is required for keeping snakeheads.
Aquarists have very diverse experiences when it comes to combining Channa species with other robust fish species. In general, most species are probably best kept alone. The level of tolerance towards other fish varies per species, but also seem to vary per specimen or specific situation. Combining Channa with other aggressive and territorial fish species, like members of the Cichlidae family is a strategy that does not work out well. A Channa that is intimidated will hide, try to escape the tank and refuse to eat.

Dwarf species

Because of their size and relatively mild temperament most of the dwarf species can be combined with  fish from 2/3 of their own length, as long their tank mates are not overly aggressive. Keep in mind that most of the members of the dwarf species are native to areas with varying water conditions, depending on the season.  A seasonal  drop of  water temperature is required too maintain good health.

Medium sizes species

Many medium sized channa (30-60 cm)  should be combined with relatively fast swimming and robust fish, like larger cyprinids.  The general opinion is that changes are best if the Snakeheads are  not fully grown and the other fish are already settled. Newly introduced fish are often killed, even when they do not fit their mouth. Mostly however, the co-existence is temporarely: When a couple is formed often all other fish are hunted and killed.

Large species (60 – 130 cm)

These species require a lot of space. Most private aquarium setup’s are just large enough to host only 1 or 2 adults. Young species often can tolerate conspecifics ans other robust fish very well. Newly introduced fish are often ripped apart instantly. Adultfish (especially formed couples)  develop the maximum level of aggression. Most of the time they are last fish standing in an aquarium set-up.

Large species (60 – 130 cm)

These species require a lot of space. Most private aquarium setup’s are just large enough to host only 1 or 2 adults. Often, newly introduced fish are ripped apart instantly. Some species are important for human consumption, but are considered highly invasive and destructive to for other ecosystems.

Channa maculata

Channa maculata is a relatively large Snakehead species. Most specimens grow to 20-30 cm It can be recognised by it;s python-lik colourpattern. Further it has large scales on the side of the head, the most distinct of all snakeheadspecies. Channa maculata is found in Northern Vietnam, South-east China, Hainan, and Hongkong. Further is has been introduced to Japan, Taiwan, Philipines, Madagascar and Oahu island (Hawai). Nowadays the species is considered invasive to the local ecosystems.

Channa maculata is an important foodfish, which is cultivated at large scale. Often hybrids with C. Argus are in circulation. in contrary to most Snakehead species, C. maculata and C. Argus have a pelagic lifestyle. Shallow, dense planted watertypes are preferred.

Het aquarium

Channa maculata is a quite, but forceful fish. Youngsters combine with conspecifics and other robust fish very well. When theu become sexually mature they isolate themselves and become intolerant. When a couple has formed usually they form a large territory. Every fish within a couple of meters is chased (and probably killed in an aquarium).

When buying Channa maculata make sure it is not a C. Argus. This species grows very large and becomes a real rivermonster.

Feeding

Carnivorous. All livefood will be eaten. Often the fish will accept frozen food, chunks of fish and even sinking meaty pellets. Don’t feed the fish beef or chicken meat. Some of the lipids from these meat source cannot be properly metabolised by the fish and may cause excess fat deposits and even organ degeneration.

Grown fish should be fed using forceps to prevent injury – to the human.

BREEDING

Af far as known breeding has not occur in aquaria. Channa amaculata however has been cultivated intensively. The fish are sexually mature after 2 years. When snakeheads mate, they are usually monogamous for an entire breeding season, and perhaps throughout their lifetimes.

The eggs are laid in substrate and rise to the surface. The parents offer an intensive and enduring care for the juveniles. When the offsping is freeswimming, the parents will guide them through the water, in a way that is comparable to ducks and their fledgelings.

Possible intruders must face strong aggression from the parents who are guarding fry. Parent snakeheads guard their young vigorously. Even swimming people can be hurt badly. It will almost become impossible to carry out maintenance activities in the tank.

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Author

Patrick de Pijper

Copyright photos

Hung Jou Chen

Additional information

Family

Genus

Species

Character

Social Behaviour

Breeding behaviour

Diet

Minimum aquarium length in cm

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Origin

Length maximum in cm

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Temperature maximum

pH minimum

pH maximum

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