The genus Nanochromis currently comprises 8 species. They are all small cichlids from the Congo River basin. The genus previously included a few more species, these were split off in 2007 into the genus Congochromis.
The name Nanochromis can be divided into two words. Nano comes from Latin, meaning small. Chromis is ancient Greek and actually means color but in the context of the hobby it can also mean fish. Combined, it then becomes “small fish”, a reference to the small size of the fish in this genus.